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A computational system that operates on the subatomic level. The rules and algorithmic structure are based on quantum mechanics, such as superposition. In contrast to classical computing, where bits are stored and processed in a binary system of zeros and ones, qubits can simultaneously be ones or zeros. Each qubit can stand for one node, one artificial neuron in a neural network. For instance, in regular computing, eight bits of standard computing power have 256 combinations, but only one can be used at a time, whereas eight qubits would be able to store —and process— all 256 combinations at once.
This has significant advantages in performing highly complex operations and solving complicated optimization problems at extreme speeds. Quantum computers could have various applications such as advanced climate modeling, simulations of new chemicals, elements, proteins, molecules, or medicines, or even optimization of mobility systems.